North Kazakhstan State University
Is it important to live in a democracy?
Such a rhetorical question brings to my mind the material of the school curriculum about democracy and other forms of power. Many articles and scientific works are written about it, but in practice, in the era of economic and political natural instability, democracy, as the power of the people is also unstable and undergoes various transformations. In the modern interpretation, democracy is a system of self-government in which all citizens are equal, and political decisions are made by the majority, taking into account and protecting the rights of the minority. The power of the majority cannot be exercised without mistakes, so it is important not only to declare respect for the opinion of the minority, but also to give it the opportunity to turn into a majority as a result of elections. And in my understanding democracy is not only power of majority, but equality, justice, equal choice and opportunities for people and their opinions. Democracy is freedom of thought, security and equality for all and everywhere. But unfortunately, I often see how power does not belong to the people anymore.
Is democracy important as a form of power and control?
Definitely Yes, but in the form in which originally gave in ancient times Plato, Aristotle and other thinkers and human rights activists. The most basic principle of a democratic society must be a system of checks and balances that prevents any authority from having excessive power.
The French thinker Charles Louis Montesquieu thought about this problem. The use of the power of laws-follows from the nature of people who are not just prone to error, but also act on the occasion of their delusions, he wrote in his book “The the spirit of the laws.”
Therefore, the rule of law can be ensured only by the separation of legislative, Executive and judicial powers. As a consequence, the various branches of government must restrain each other. It is this configuration of power that can ensure political and legal conditions of freedom. To prevent the struggle for influence between the Executive, legislative and judicial branches, Montesquieu assigns a dominant role to the legislature. With regard to the Executive and the judiciary, their activities are subordinate to the law, as they only enforce and implement laws. As a result, the level of democracy of the state depends on the process of consolidation of democracy, on the internal and external conditions of this consolidation.
10 years ago, 34% of the population of our Earth lived in non-free countries. For example, the dictatorial regimes in Panama, Tibet, Laos, Uzbekistan, Poland, the Baltic States, South Korea, Mali, the Philippines, Africa, Nigeria, and Haiti were replaced by democracy, a new form of government with a certain level of people's trust in power. Freedom House survey showed an increase in the number of free countries from 1983 to 2009. But what shows us our time, even in such democratic countries there are military coups and calls for violence, economic crisis and ineffective management, change of power with the use of weapons, tools of dictatorship and undemocratic violent methods of solving problems and problems. And then democracy begins to exhaust its ideological, psychological, economic and human resources. The situation in the middle East, which still destroys the lives of people and children, the war in Ukraine, the eternal conflicts and sanctions between the leading countries, only undermine the credibility of the institutions and methods of democracy, violate the right of the people to freedom of expression and choice in a "fictitious" vote. Thus, it is important to live in an effective and lawfully ruling democracy, effective institutions and instruments of democratic power, taking into account the opinion and equal choice of the most important source of democracy – the people.
In the country where I live, in Kazakhstan - democracy. Kazakhstan is a multi-ethnic country that adheres to democratic principles of government and its democracy is expressed in the fact that the Constitution establishes democratic norms that allow citizens to nominate and choose in representative bodies their representatives, expressing, willing and able to defend the interests of the people as a whole, the interests of social and national minorities, the legitimate interests of individual citizens. As well as the ability to provide citizens, their associations influence on the content of management decisions of state bodies and the process of their implementation in their own interests. To this end, the Constitution provides certain conditions. The most important of these is the democratic political regime. The political regime characterizes the essence of the state, its relationship with society, with an individual, regulated primarily by the norms of constitutional law. The political regime clearly shows the degree of real functioning of the constitutional norms.
There are two models of development: one is the Western one, where initially the institutions of democracy are developing, and the true institutions are developing intensively, not attributively, with the subsequent and simultaneous development of the economy. And the Eastern way, which requires initially accelerated economic development, and only in the subsequent democratic relations. Each of these ways of development has certain disadvantages. The Western way requires a very long period of time. Thus, the United States has made significant progress in the implementation of human rights, passed through racial secretion and slavery, riots of black Americans. Even after the adoption of the most progressive Constitution in 1787., at that time, only white men gained the right to vote and to be elected, women only gained the right to vote in 1920. Another specific way showed China, when simultaneously with the existence (and functioning, which is important) of state-owned enterprises (the largest) appear and private enterprises. This country has demonstrated its desire to achieve democracy through, in fact, totalitarianism in the shortest possible time. And firms from the most democratic countries from year to year invest more money in this country, and do not lend, namely invest, build, produce in China.
In General, true democracy is an ideal for all States of the modern world that are democratic or setting this goal. This ideal, as noted by the former Czech President V. Havel, will stand before humanity as a landmark, which, having fully realized its content, no one succeeds.
And while humanity has not come up with anything smarter, it is necessary to improve democracy, think and create new models that are adequate to the realities of the twenty-first century.