Over the centuries there has been a belief that social differences and the different roles of women and men are natural variations do not change, and it's determined by biological differences, and these qualities and attributes comprise ideas and valuable than masculine and regards the female (such as emotional and men women Irrational), it also includes a set of stereotypes, attitudes and behaviours of men and women (women wash pots and men running machines). It's called ' gender. '
1-What do we mean by gender?
The term gender type called "on relationships and social roles and values defined by society for both sexes (men and women), and change these roles and relationships and values according to change of place and time to overlap and interrelation with other social relations such as religion, Social class, race, etc. Etc. Although these relations in different Community institutions changing all these institutions resist change.
And if some scientists and researchers contend that there are specific aspects of human biological composition related to hormones and chromosomes and genetic effects and brain size is responsible for differences in innate behavior a least adverse trends confirms that finds a lot of exaggeration in devoting these differences Socially withdrawn and determine biological behaviors and culture activity and standard ways we as a society "suitable for this species.
You can also specify the key difference between sex, gender: sex case born and is fixed, while gender is gaining status and are therefore variable.
To define roles and behaviors as a culture and a society's ideas and the output of categories lead to justify dominance over another class as its superiority in the work of reason and restraint and control of emotions and are therefore worthy of holding ownership and control.
2-Historical development Of gender:
Growing interest in issues of advancement and empowerment of women and their integration in development dramatically in the last quarter of the last century ". The United Nations held four conferences for this issue, the first Conference of Mexico in 1975 and which was the international year of the woman and the beginning of what was known as "the Decade for women",
Put the work under the slogan (the equal development of him). Followed by Copenhagen in 1980 and the evaluation station was in the Mexico Conference. Then the Nairobi Conference in 1985 and put forward strategies for women to the year 2000.
The Beijing Conference 1995 and raised the basic axes of work on women's issues, and put the record straight and select the mechanisms and methods of work, and developed concepts to suit new developments of the age and its nature and tasks.
Of the concepts that emerged from the Beijing Conference, the concept of "gender what?
and Gender: a word used to be entered as "gender" in all translations, and had entered this concept to Arabic and Islamic communities with the Cairo Conference on population in 1994 (before the Beijing Conference), as mentioned in this document at 51 locations. And understood to translate the document gender (male/female) (Gender) is an English word meaning Latino descent in linguistic dictionary (sex) specifically in terms of masculinity and femininity and is used as a linguistic term to categorize nouns and pronouns and adjectives, or used as a verb based on sex-related properties in some Languages, and in purely linguistic templates.
and Repeat the term gender in the Beijing Conference document 233 times and had to be stand more clearly when the significance of this term and its meaning in the language of the instrument, and get to know the circumstances of his upbringing, and semantic development. Since only definition rejected male/female, Western countries insisted on putting the definition includes: "atypical life as other States rejected social behaviour". The term continued to trade as "Gander" without a final definition.
In 1998 the Rome Conference documents were issued on the establishment of the international criminal court where article says: all discrimination or punishment on the basis of gender covers a crime against humanity. And the introduction of the word "gender" in the definition of crimes in English something weird in itself necessary investigate intended, as the French texts used the word sex and don't use the word gender where defined gender to mean "male and female in society", made up in social science Spangled with Arabic: individual or social object.
And corresponds to the concept of gender or genre concept sex "sex" and the latter is associated with specific biological characteristics that distinguish men from women and are immutable characteristics until the change of cultures or a change of time and space.
And who knew that the term used describe the characteristics of men and women as a social vehicle characteristics unrelated to differences.
Either the British encyclopedia they knew what is called gender identity by saying: "that gender identity is a human feeling himself as male or female, and often the gender identity" organic characteristics "be one but there are cases where human feeling not associated with its membership, and where no consensus among Membership and gender identity.
3-The aim of gender study:
It was the first purpose of asking a problematic genre is emancipating the mind and understanding of almsbkat and stereotypes are lingering around gender and physiological differences identified by nature, then lifting the relations between men and women to a civilized level of sanity gender tend those boundaries that minted in frameworks These exam papers from specific frozen is male and who is female. And it became necessary to distinguish between natural and cultural gender relations. In fact, this discrimination requires standing on what is natural which sexual difference between men and women, and between the cultural and civilizational differences which represent meaningful social relationships are accepted between men and women, any type relationships.
And can conclude from these data that is supplied by the cultural meaning of cultures, the purpose of asking a problematic genre is doing disassembly strategy aimed at emancipating the mind which is commented out from further a do, and perceptions based on typical nationality, specific properties of a male And who is female. Thus we can say that gender is cultural discrimination for male on female, rooted to the culture, not nature. Social engineering is also working on making the conditions of daily life for both women and men, and the place they occupied in society.