EFFECTS OF JOBS THREAT IN AFRICA'S GOVERNMENTS TODAY: USING NIGERIA AS AN EXAMPLE.

In a world where government inequitable allocation of human resources escalate more and more often each day, we find ourselves living in an age where job opportunities generally are decreasing while economic problems are increasing.


It is seemly an awkward progression. Africa's unemployed persons today are living on the street, some frustrated and deprived of their right to humanity; in a situation whereby government enacted laws are taken for granted by government agencies devising and implementing corrupt practices.


Achebe (1983) in one of the findings in his book "The Trouble with Nigeria", emphasized that "the cult of corruption formed by our rulers, and insatiable quest to loot the national treasury has sailed us into the "ocean" of economic confusion and unemployment".


Thus, the incidence on March 15th, 2014, at the national stadium, Abuja was a striated punishment on the people.


It was gathered that the stampede occurred when over 68,000 applicants out of over 6,500,000 applicants for Nigerian immigration service (NIS) tried to force their way into the 60,000-seating capacity stadium; some candidates fell and were trampled on, while some became unconscious and did not return home alive; as a result of seeking for government job.


According to investigation, all candidates paid an application fee of N1,000, applying for 4,000 NIS vacant positions supposed for the entire applicants in the country and were all made to sit for the exam at the venue on the same day. As an encumbered incidence, it was considered that the mode of Nigerian schemes is corrupt and has jeopardized the human race.



This led the masses demonstrating that government boards used unnecessary fraud scheme and lashed out with torturing danger at those who seek for jobs rather than protect individuals' rights and offer reliable job opportunities.


People now, barely partake in government incentive schemes but extremely engage in criminality, like online theft, etc. or struggle for daily bread through personal engagements rather than taking part in government scheme.


In not a dissimilar way, what this continent (Africa) needs is a reform that will ultimately change the way government regulatory sectors make decisions and undermine key strategies in tackling the predicament (corruption) facing the society as purposive measure to protect both national sovereignty and the welfare of the general public.


This is the first step that today's governments must take to create a generating reform for posterity.


Today, amidst governmental organizational setup, mismanagement is one biggest threat, in which, many African governments drive to micro-manage major sectors such as Agriculture, Power, Works, and Trade sectors, rather than macro-managing.


Most especially the mismanagement of agriculture in Africa is the cause decreasing the cross-national economy of the continent notably as the consequence of economic depression, due to poor implementation strategies; degenerating ways to generate revenue, create employments, economic growth, political stability.


Recently, it can be said that government objectives are not yielding to development; instead they portray unfulfilled generative projects. Take for instance, Agriculture is a crucial sector for growth sustenance and poverty reduction in developing economies.


In Africa, Agricultural sector dominates most economies in terms of contribution to GDP, employment and incomes, its growth and development are essential for the entire process of socioeconomic development in the region.


To take the idea further, this sector is not given much concern in terms of labour. Labour on the other hand, is an input into the economy in which governments would ensure capital flow, that the general public would be given opportunities to be employed.


Recent survey committed by experts has put the unemployment rate in Africa at 52%, while the youth unemployment is 60%. The report shows that the bracket age of 15-35 years old account for close to 60% of the Africa's population and 25% workforce. The report also indicates that over 5 million youth graduates are limited to enter the labour market every year.


Given this analysis, I must say that, it is a deplorable African status quo. Considering the fact that the continent that is blessed with a lot of human and natural resources capable of providing employment for the youths and those who are willing to work in the society.


As noted by the experts' report, it reveals that government policy is static thereby militating against job creation. The neglect of agricultural sector is among many other factors responsible for the scourge. The study therefore, recommends urgent intervention in the immanent sectors of the economy.


African governments are not helping matters at all; budget allocation into the agricultural sector is depreciating down the line. Government policies at times fail to finance or implement credit facilities.


Majority of farmers (in rural areas) are poor and do not have finance to make purchase of farm tools, etc. They barely have access to loan facilities from banks.


As the case may be, most farmers in the rural settings now migrate to the urban settings in order to acquire credible job status as an end to unyielding provenance.


In regards to the above context, government policies in Africa's agricultural terrain do not enhance steady employability, as such depreciating food security.


Current research conducted by president of international fund for agricultural development (IFAD) Dr. Kanayo Nwanze, stated that, “One-third of all food ends up as waste, 57 per cent of the potential edible crops harvested is not available for consumption and 90 per cent of the world soya bean production is consumed by animals instead of humans."
“Our continent is not immune to waste.


In sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 20 to 40 per cent of the crops produced deteriorate after harvest because they cannot be safely stored."


“Consider the post-harvest grain losses in sub-Saharan Africa which averages about  4 billion USD every year.


“This food  should meet the nutritional needs of about 50 million people; losses on this scale are scandalous particularly on a continent where millions go hungry.”


Nwanze advised Africa to ensure that agriculture and development go compatibly as it looked forward to the future development agenda.



In his remarks, the Vice President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur urged IFAD to increase its assistance to rural communities to create other forms of employment to absorb labour released from farming.


Without labour (the active population), the reduction in food supply and other agricultural production over the years has become synonymous with the region's stagnation, social decline and marginalization in the world. Until


Renewed measures are taken by the governments to ensure utmost implementation of agricultural production and job creation, there will be continued delaminating objectives throughout Africa.


Another compelling point of mine is unfavorable government regulations and controls: Governments impeding regulations and controls so far have entangled the welfare of the citizens.


Therefore, it calls for effective reform. For example, public sector regulations and controls embarked upon by the administration of a renowned African president (Nigerian president), Goodluck Jonathan sacked over 20,000 workers from the power holding company (PHCN) between 2013 and 2014.

More so, it was disclosed that many officers were severed from the civil service during his term in office. The regulations also hit the banking sector with massive retrenchment of workers.


The oil industry was not left out, NNPC alone pruned its work force from 100% down to just 55%. One may ask whether the reform is self-contradictory instead of enhancing corrective measures.


If there had been a sole yielding reform (increase in employment range), government policies would dramatically enforce more than 90 percent workforce into the labour market.


By contrast, government has abated applicants chances to fill vacancies available within the subsequent sectors of the economy.


For instance, the security sector; out of millions eligible candidates who applied for the Nigerian Army recruitment (72RRI) only few thousands were recruited.


The rest were left out (see current national statistics).


Similarly, the rise of unfavourable terms and conditions placed on jobs has been a tormenting block for unemployed persons; there is no doubt that years of experience brings about efficiency and productivity.


However, the issue of stretching years of experience and age limit by the employers as criterion for employment has slimmed chance for employment.


A 32-year-old unemployed graduate of Economics outpoured that the current state of job terms and conditions in the country is too awful on graduates nowadays and in most cases, employers insist on 25 years age limit and five years work experience.


But with the challenges people face before graduating in this country, how do you expect a 25 year old to have acquired five years experience?


By and large, the presence of over-aged workers, those who are due for retirement but (for the fear of socio-economic insecurity in the country), refused to retire, has left no opening for fresher to come in.


A study carried out by the Bureau of public service reform indicates that succession potential into the the civil service on the basis of age profile is very low.


Using 25 year as the optimum age of basic degree graduate into the civil service on GL08 and a maximum 35 years in service to attain age of compulsory retirement age of 60 years; and the FCSC prescribed promotion eligibility, grade level stay of 3 years between GL08 and 15 and 4 years between GL15 - 17, the study shows that 91.5% of the officers were found to be over aged for their grade levels and position occupied.


Thus, the sucession potential was less than 20% in all cases. (Adegoroye, 2006). The above findings have a great implication for employment opportunities, especially for the youths who are more vibrant and energetic.


Furthermore, the advent of terrorism in the country has subdued not only Nigeria's pride but also Africa's pride as a whole. The high rate of unemployment is equivalent to the high rate of crime in the region.


Currently, most unemployed persons indulge in things believed endangering the world and carefree about the repercussion it will cause. According to research, the reason why most people in Africa signed into terrorist groups like the Bokoharam, Al-Shabab and the likes, was due to nothing else but social consequences like, frustrating government reforms placed on jobs.


For example, firing workers as well as limiting rooms for fresher to come in, in regards to new president's term in office.


I believe that, if African governments, would endeavour to lessen its regulations and controls (curbing its limitations), many workers in all sectors would be retained and fresh workers would also be employed.



In conclusion, these are all issues worthy of a transformative factor, worthy of a change. But if African Governments cannot implement effective measures to come to reality, today's generation will suffer an appendage of stagnation.

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