Will India Make it with a Manned Mission : India's Space Efforts

With Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announcing on 72nd Independence Day that India will send a manned mission in Space by 2022 ,most of pioneer nations in Space Race have started thinking if India will make it?
Indian Space Science program was pioneered by none other than Vikram Sarabahi who is regarded as father of Indian Space research.It all started like a film story when in 1970s US Space Agency announced that it had funding for a large Space Project under which it was ready to rent a satellite at 0 rent to a country to broadcast programs on education and awareness.More than 100 countries bid for that grant and satellite known as ATS-6 but finally three were shortlisted and those were China,Brazil and India. Vikram Sarabahi put his best feet forward by elaborating India's need for that project. In the eye of NASA Brazil never had cosiderable rural population while China was differing on ideological terms and hence India won the bid and Satellite Instructional Television Experiment(SITE) experiment was started.Rest as we all know is history.India started its own National Satellite Program with launch of Aryabhatta -India's first satellite in Space.
The space research activities were initiated in our country during the early 1960’s, when applications using satellites were in experimental stages even in the United States. With the live transmission of Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American Satellite ‘Syncom-3’ demonstrating the power of communication satellites, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founding father of Indian space programme, quickly recognized the benefits of space technologies for India.

The Genesis - St. Mary Magdelene Church in the fishing village of Thumba in Thiruvanathapuram
Dr. Sarabhai was convinced and envisioned that the resources in space have the potential to address the real problems of man and society. As Director, Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) located in Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai convened an army of able and brilliant scientists, anthropologists, communicators and social scientists from all corners of the country to spearhead the Indian space programme.

Since inception, the Indian space programme has been orchestrated well and had three distinct elements such as, satellites for communication and remote sensing, the space transportation system and application programmes. The INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research) was initiated under the leadership of Dr. Sarabhai and Dr. Ramanathan. In 1967, the first ‘Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES)’ located in Ahmedabad was operationalized, which also doubled as a training centre for the Indian as well as International scientists and engineers.

To establish that a satellite system can contribute to the national development, ISRO was clear that it need not wait for its own satellites to begin application development, while foreign satellites could be used in the initial stages. However, before trying out a full-fledged satellite system, some controlled experiment to prove the efficacy of television medium for national development was found necessary. Accordingly, a TV programme on agricultural information to farmers ‘Krishi Darshan’ was started, which received good response.

The next logical step was the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), hailed as ‘the largest sociological experiment in the world’ during 1975-76. This experiment benefited around 200,000 people, covering 2400 villages of six states and transmitted development oriented programmes using the American Technology Satellite (ATS-6). The credit of training 50,000 science teachers primary schools in one year goes to SITE.

SITE was followed by the Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project (STEP), a joint project of ISRO-and Post and Telegraphs Department (P&T) using the Franco-German Symphonie satellite during 1977-79. Conceived as a sequel to SITE which focused on Television, STEP was for telecommunication experiments. STEP was aimed to provide a system test of using geosynchronous satellites for domestic communications, enhance capabilities and experience in the design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of various ground segment facilities and build up requisite indigenous competence for the proposed operational domestic satellite system, INSAT, for the country.

SITE was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP)’, which worked as a field laboratory for need-based and locale specific programme transmission in the Kheda district of Gujarat State. KCP was awarded the UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award for rural communication efficiency in the 1984.

During this period, the first Indian spacecraft ‘Aryabhata’ was developed and was launched using a Soviet Launcher. Another major landmark was the development of the first launch vehicle SLV-3 with a capability to place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which had its first successful flight in 1980. Through the SLV-3 programme, competence was built up for the overall vehicle design, mission design, material, hardware fabrication, solid propulsion technology, control power plants, avionics, vehicle integration checkout and launch operations. Development of mult-istage rocket systems with appropriate control and guidance systems to orbit a satellite was a major landmark in our space programme.

In the experimental phase during 80’s, end-to-end capability demonstration was done in the design, development and in-orbit management of space systems together with the associated ground systems for the users. Bhaskara-I & II missions were pioneering steps in the remote sensing area whereas ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ became the forerunner for future communication satellite system. Development of the complex Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), also demonstrated newer technologies like use of strap-on, bulbous heat shield, closed loop guidance and digital autopilot. This paved the way for learning many nuances of launch vehicle design for complex missions, leading the way for realisation of operational launch vehicles such as PSLV and GSLV.

During the operational phase in 90’s, major space infrastructure was created under two broad classes: one for the communication, broadcasting and meteorology through a multi-purpose Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), and the other for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) system. The development and operationalisation of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and development of Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) were significant achievements during this phase.

And then came APJ Kalam era which saw an unprecedented growth in DRDO Research.Dr Kalam was associated with DRDO but he also inspired ISRO and India's Space Science Efforts first as Scientist and then President of country.

Current NDA Gov is credited with honor of making him President of India making him sit on highest constitutional post of nation.So when we talk about whether India can make it to space with a manned mission we have to go through history of Indian Space Research. India has a pool of Space Scientists and more over world's third largest Spoace Agency to conduct Space Researches spread not only in different cities but in Universities also.
We also must not forget that India has already sent one person in Space in collaboration with Russia when Capt Rakesh Sharma went to space and uttered those famous words to Mrs Gandhi-Sare Jahan Se Achcha from Space.

So when we analyze if India can make to Space with a manned Mission which is PM Modi's idea I will only add-Nothing is impossible.

Now lets have a look on India's Space Journey.

Space Science & Exploration
Indian space programme encompasses research in areas like astronomy, astrophysics, planetary and earth sciences, atmospheric sciences and theoretical physics. Balloons, sounding rockets, space platforms and ground-based facilities support these research efforts. A series of sounding rockets are available for atmospheric experiments. Several scientific instruments have been flown on satellites especially to direct celestial X-ray and gamma-ray bursts.

AstroSat
AstroSat is the first dedicated Indian astronomy mission aimed at studying celestial sources in X-ray, optical and UV spectral bands simultaneously. The payloads cover the energy bands of Ultraviolet (Near and For), limited optical and X-ray regime (0.3 keV to 100keV). One of the unique features of AstroSat mission is that it enables the simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of various astronomical objects with a single satellite.

AstroSat with a lift-off mass of 1515 kg was launched on September 28, 2015 into a 650 km orbit inclined at an angle of 6 deg to the equator by PSLV-C30 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The minimum useful life of the AstroSat mission is expected to be 5 years.

Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Orbiter Mission is ISRO’s first interplanetary mission to planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit of 372 km by 80,000 km. Mars Orbiter mission can be termed as a challenging technological mission and a science mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion, communications and other bus systems of the spacecraft. The primary driving technological objective of the mission is to design and realize a spacecraft with a capability to perform Earth Bound Manoeuvre (EBM), Martian Transfer Trajectory (MTT) and Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) phases and the related deep space mission planning and communication management at a distance of nearly 400 million Km. Autonomous fault detection and recovery also becomes vital for the mission.

Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1, India's first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2 will be an advanced version of the previous Chandrayaan-1 mission to Moon.Chandrayaan-2 is configured as a two module system comprising of an Orbiter Craft module (OC) and a Lander Craft module (LC) carrying the Rover developed by ISRO.

List of Scientific and exploration Spacecraft
Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Orbit Type Application Remarks
Mars Orbiter Mission Spacecraft Nov 05, 2013 1337 kg PSLV-C25 Martian Planetary Observation
Chandrayaan-1 Oct 22, 2008 1380 kg PSLV-C11 Lunar Planetary Observation
SRE-1 Jan 10, 2007 550 kg PSLV-C7 / CARTOSAT-2 / SRE-1 SSPO Experimental
SROSS-C2 May 04, 1994 115 kg ASLV-D4 Experimental
SROSS-C May 20, 1992 106.1 kg ASLV-D3 Experimental
SROSS-1 Mar 24, 1987 150 kg ASLV-D1 Experimental Launch Unsuccessful

Communication Satellites
Series of Communication Satellite
The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in Asia-Pacific region with nine operational communication satellites placed in Geo-stationary orbit. Established in 1983 with commissioning of INSAT-1B, it initiated a major revolution in India’s communications sector and sustained the same later. GSAT-17 joins the constellation of INSAT System consisting 15 operational satellites, namely - INSAT-3A, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4CR and GSAT-6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 18.

The INSAT system with more than 200 transponders in the C, Extended C and Ku-bands provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, satellite newsgathering, societal applications, weather forecasting, disaster warning and Search and Rescue operations.

List of Communication Satellites
Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Application Remarks
GSAT-6A Mar 29, 2018 GSLV-F08/GSAT-6A Mission Communication
GSAT-17 Jun 29, 2017 3477 kg Ariane-5 VA-238 Communication
GSAT-19 Jun 05, 2017 3136 Kg GSLV Mk III-D1/GSAT-19 Mission Communication
GSAT-9 May 05, 2017 2230 kg GSLV-F09 / GSAT-9 Communication
GSAT-18 Oct 06, 2016 3404 kg Ariane-5 VA-231 Communication
GSAT-15 Nov 11, 2015 3164 kg Ariane-5 VA-227 Communication, Navigation
GSAT-6 Aug 27, 2015 2117 kg GSLV-D6 Communication
GSAT-16 Dec 07, 2014 3181.6 kg Ariane-5 VA-221 Communication
GSAT-14 Jan 05, 2014 1982 kg GSLV-D5/GSAT-14 Communication
GSAT-7 Aug 30, 2013 2650 kg Ariane-5 VA-215 Communication
GSAT-10 Sep 29, 2012 3400 kg Ariane-5 VA-209 Communication, Navigation
GSAT-12 Jul 15, 2011 1410 kg PSLV-C17/GSAT-12 Communication
GSAT-8 May 21, 2011 3093 kg Ariane-5 VA-202 Communication, Navigation
GSAT-5P Dec 25, 2010 2310 kg GSLV-F06 / GSAT-5P Communication Launch Unsuccessful
GSAT-4 Apr 15, 2010 2220 Kg GSLV-D3 / GSAT-4 Communication Launch Unsuccessful
INSAT-4CR Sep 02, 2007 2,130 kg GSLV-F04 / INSAT-4CR Communication
INSAT-4B Mar 12, 2007 3025 Kg Ariane5 Communication
INSAT-4C Jul 10, 2006 GSLV-F02 / INSAT-4C Communication Launch Unsuccessful
INSAT-4A Dec 22, 2005 3081 Kg Ariane5-V169 Communication
HAMSAT May 05, 2005 PSLV-C6/CARTOSAT-1/HAMSAT Communication
EDUSAT Sep 20, 2004 1950.5 kg GSLV-F01 / EDUSAT(GSAT-3) Communication
INSAT-3E Sep 28, 2003 2,775 Kg Ariane5-V162 Communication
GSAT-2 May 08, 2003 1800 Kg GSLV-D2 / GSAT-2 Communication
INSAT-3A Apr 10, 2003 2,950 Kg Ariane5-V160 Climate & Environment, Communication
KALPANA-1 Sep 12, 2002 1060 Kg PSLV-C4 /KALPANA-1 Climate & Environment, Communication
INSAT-3C Jan 24, 2002 2,650 Kg Ariane5-V147 Climate & Environment, Communication
GSAT-1 Apr 18, 2001 1530 Kg GSLV-D1 / GSAT-1 Communication
INSAT-3B Mar 22, 2000 2,070 Kg Ariane-5G Communication
INSAT-2E Apr 03, 1999 2,550 Kg Ariane-42P H10-3 Communication
INSAT-2D Jun 04, 1997 2079 Kg Ariane-44L H10-3 Communication Failed in Orbit
INSAT-2C Dec 07, 1995 2106 Kg Ariane-44L H10-3 Communication
INSAT-2B Jul 23, 1993 1906 kg Ariane-44L H10+ Communication
INSAT-2A Jul 10, 1992 1906 kg Ariane-44L H10 Communication
INSAT-1D Jun 12, 1990 Delta 4925 Communication
INSAT-1C Jul 22, 1988 Ariane-3 Communication Partial Failure in Orbit
INSAT-1B Aug 30, 1983 Shuttle [PAM-D] Communication
INSAT-1A Apr 10, 1982 Delta Communication Failed in Orbit

Earth Observation Satellites
Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites. Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation. Currently, *thirteen* operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit – RESOURCESAT-1, 2, 2A CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, and *four* in Geostationary orbit- INSAT-3D, Kalpana & INSAT 3A, INSAT -3DR. Varieties of instruments have been flown onboard these satellites to provide necessary data in a diversified spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to cater to different user requirements in the country and for global usage. The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and disaster management.

List of Earth Observation Satellites
Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Orbit Type Application Remarks
Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Jan 12, 2018 710 Kg PSLV-C40/Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Mission SSPO Earth Observation
Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Jun 23, 2017 712 kg PSLV-C38 / Cartosat-2 Series Satellite SSPO Earth Observation
Cartosat -2 Series Satellite Feb 15, 2017 714 kg PSLV-C37 / Cartosat -2 Series Satellite SSPO Earth Observation
RESOURCESAT-2A Dec 07, 2016 1235 kg PSLV-C36 / RESOURCESAT-2A SSPO Earth Observation
SCATSAT-1 Sep 26, 2016 371 kg PSLV-C35 / SCATSAT-1 SSPO Climate & Environment
INSAT-3DR Sep 08, 2016 2211 kg GSLV-F05 / INSAT-3DR GSO Climate & Environment, Disaster Management System
CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite Jun 22, 2016 737.5 kg PSLV-C34 / CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite SSPO Earth Observation
INSAT-3D Jul 26, 2013 2060 Kg Ariane-5 VA-214 GSO Climate & Environment, Disaster Management System
SARAL Feb 25, 2013 407 kg PSLV-C20/SARAL SSPO Climate & Environment, Earth Observation
RISAT-1 Apr 26, 2012 1858 kg PSLV-C19/RISAT-1 SSPO Earth Observation
Megha-Tropiques Oct 12, 2011 1000 kg PSLV-C18/Megha-Tropiques SSPO Climate & Environment, Earth Observation
RESOURCESAT-2 Apr 20, 2011 1206 kg PSLV-C16/RESOURCESAT-2 SSPO Earth Observation
CARTOSAT-2B Jul 12, 2010 694 kg PSLV-C15/CARTOSAT-2B SSPO Earth Observation
Oceansat-2 Sep 23, 2009 960 kg PSLV-C14 / OCEANSAT-2 SSPO Climate & Environment, Earth Observation
RISAT-2 Apr 20, 2009 300 kg PSLV-C12 / RISAT-2 SSPO Earth Observation
IMS-1 Apr 28, 2008 83 kg PSLV-C9 / CARTOSAT – 2A SSPO Earth Observation
CARTOSAT – 2A Apr 28, 2008 690 Kg PSLV-C9 / CARTOSAT – 2A SSPO Earth Observation
CARTOSAT-2 Jan 10, 2007 650 kg PSLV-C7 / CARTOSAT-2 / SRE-1 SSPO Earth Observation
CARTOSAT-1 May 05, 2005 1560 kg PSLV-C6/CARTOSAT-1/HAMSAT SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-P6 / RESOURCESAT-1 Oct 17, 2003 1360 kg PSLV-C5 /RESOURCESAT-1 SSPO Earth Observation
The Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) Oct 22, 2001 PSLV-C3 / TES SSPO Earth Observation
Oceansat(IRS-P4) May 26, 1999 1050 kg PSLV-C2/IRS-P4 SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-1D Sep 29, 1997 1250kg PSLV-C1 / IRS-1D SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-P3 Mar 21, 1996 920 kg PSLV-D3 / IRS-P3 SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-1C Dec 28, 1995 1250 kg Molniya SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-P2 Oct 15, 1994 804 kg PSLV-D2 SSPO Earth Observation
IRS-1E Sep 20, 1993 846 kg PSLV-D1 LEO Earth Observation Launch Unsuccessful
IRS-1B Aug 29, 1991 975 kg Vostok SSPO Earth Observation
SROSS-2 Jul 13, 1988 150 kg ASLV-D2 Earth Observation, Experimental Launch Unsuccessful
IRS-1A Mar 17, 1988 975 kg Vostok SSPO Earth Observation
Rohini Satellite RS-D2 Apr 17, 1983 41.5 kg SLV-3 LEO Earth Observation
Bhaskara-II Nov 20, 1981 444 kg C-1 Intercosmos LEO Earth Observation, Experimental
Rohini Satellite RS-D1 May 31, 1981 38 kg SLV-3D1 LEO Earth Observation
Bhaskara-I Jun 07, 1979 442 kg C-1Intercosmos LEO Earth Observation, Experimental

Experimental Satellites
ISRO has launched many small satellites mainly for the experimental purposes. This experiment include Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Studies, Payload Development, Orbit Controls, recovery technology etc.

Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Orbit Type Application Remarks
INS-1C Jan 12, 2018 PSLV-C40/Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Mission SSPO Experimental
INS-1A Feb 15, 2017 8.4 kg PSLV-C37 / Cartosat -2 Series Satellite SSPO Experimental
INS-1B Feb 15, 2017 9.7 kg PSLV-C37 / Cartosat -2 Series Satellite SSPO Experimental
YOUTHSAT Apr 20, 2011 92 kg PSLV-C16/RESOURCESAT-2 SSPO Student Satellite
APPLE Jun 19, 1981 670 kg Ariane -1(V-3) GSO Communication, Experimental
Rohini Satellite RS-1 Jul 18, 1980 35 kg SLV-3E2
Rohini Technology Payload (RTP) Aug 10, 1979 35 kg SLV-3E1 Launch Unsuccessful
Aryabhata Apr 19, 1975 360 kg C-1 Intercosmos Experimental

Satellite Navigation
Satellite Navigation service is an emerging satellite based system with commercial and strategic applications. ISRO is committed to provide the satellite based Navigation services to meet the emerging demands of the Civil Aviation requirements and to meet the user requirements of the positioning, navigation and timing based on the independent satellite navigation system. To meet the Civil Aviation requirements, ISRO is working jointly with Airport Authority of India (AAI) in establishing the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system. To meet the user requirements of the positioning, navigation and timing services based on the indigenous system, ISRO is establishing a regional satellite navigation system called Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

(a) GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN):
This is a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) implemented jointly with Airport Authority of India (AAI). The main objectives of GAGAN are to provide Satellite-based Navigation services with accuracy and integrity required for civil aviation applications and to provide better Air Traffic Management over Indian Airspace. The system will be interoperable with other international SBAS systems and provide seamless navigation across regional boundaries. The GAGAN Signal-In-Space (SIS) is available through GSAT-8 and GSAT-10.

(b) Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) : NavIC
This is an independent Indian Satellite based positioning system for critical National applications. The main objective is to provide Reliable Position, Navigation and Timing services over India and its neighbourhood, to provide fairly good accuracy to the user. The IRNSS will provide basically two types of services

Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
Restricted Service (RS)
To date, ISRO has built a total of nine satellites in the IRNSS series; of which eight are currently in orbit Three of these satellites are in geostationary orbit (GEO) while the remaining in geosynchronous orbits (GSO) that maintain an inclination of 29° to the equatorial plane. The IRNSS constellation was named as “NavIC” (Navigation with Indian Constellation) by the Honourable Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi and dedicated to the nation on the occasion of the successful launch of the IRNSS-1G satellite. The eight operational satellites in the IRNSS series, namely IRNSS-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F, 1G and 1I were launched on Jul 02, 2013; Apr 04, 2014; Oct 16, 2014; Mar 28, 2015; Jan 20, 2016; Mar 10, 2016, Apr 28, 2016; and Apr 12, 2018 respectively. The PSLV-39 / IRNSS-1H being unsuccessful; the satellite could not reach orbit.

List of Navigation Satellites
Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Orbit Type Application Remarks
IRNSS-1I Apr 12, 2018 1425 kg PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I GSO Navigation
IRNSS-1H Aug 31, 2017 PSLV-C39/IRNSS-1H Mission Navigation Launch Unsuccessful
IRNSS-1G Apr 28, 2016 1425 kg PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G GEO Navigation
IRNSS-1F Mar 10, 2016 1425 kg PSLV-C32/IRNSS-1F GEO Navigation
IRNSS-1E Jan 20, 2016 1425 kg PSLV-C31/IRNSS-1E GSO Navigation
IRNSS-1D Mar 28, 2015 1425 kg PSLV-C27/IRNSS-1D GSO Navigation
IRNSS-1C Oct 16, 2014 1425 kg PSLV-C26/IRNSS-1C GEO Navigation
IRNSS-1B Apr 04, 2014 1432 kg PSLV-C24/IRNSS-1B GSO Navigation
IRNSS-1A Jul 01, 2013 1425 kg PSLV-C22/IRNSS-1A GSO Navigation
*Geo stationary Orbit (GEO)
Geo Synchronous Orbit (GSO)

Small Satellites
Small Satellite
The small satellite project is envisaged to provide platform for stand-alone payloads for earth imaging and science missions within a quick turn around time. For making the versatile platform for different kinds of payloads, two kinds of buses have been configured and developed.

Indian Mini Satellite -1 (IMS-1)
IMS-1 bus has been developed as a versatile bus of 100 kg class which includes a payload capability of around 30 kg. The bus has been developed using various miniaturization techniques. The first mission of the IMS-1 series was launched successfully on April 28th 2008 as a co-passenger along with Cartosat 2A. Youthsat is second mission in this series and was launched successfully along with Resourcesat 2 on 20th April 2011.

Indian Mini Satellite -2 (IMS-2) Bus

IMS-2 Bus is evolved as a standard bus of 400 kg class which includes a payload capability of around 200kg. IMS-2 development is an important milestone as it is envisaged to be a work horse for different types of remote sensing applications. The first mission of IMS-2 is SARAL. SARAL is a co-operative mission between ISRO and CNES with payloads from CNES and spacecraft bus from ISRO.

List of Small Satellites
Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Orbit Type Application Remarks
Microsat Jan 12, 2018 PSLV-C40/Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Mission SSPO Experimental
YOUTHSAT Apr 20, 2011 92 kg PSLV-C16/RESOURCESAT-2 SSPO Student Satellite

University / Academic Institute Satellites
ISRO has influenced educational institutions by its activities like making satellites for communication, remote sensing and astronomy. The launch of Chandrayaan-1 increased the interest of universities and institutions towards making experimental student satellites. Capable Universities and institution can venture into space technology on-orbit with guidance and support from ISRO in following ways.

Development of Payload (by Universities/Institutions)
Every satellite carries a payload that performs the intended function to achieve the mission goal and the main bus that supports the payload function. The Development of payloads may comprise of detectors, electronics and associated algorithms, which can be an experimental piggy back payload on the ISRO’s on-going (Small or operational) satellite projects.

Design and development of detectors, payload electronics, and associated algorithm / experiments that enhance the application of space services to mankind is a continuing R&D activity in several educational institutions all over the world. Educational institutions can propose the payloads developed by them to be flown on ISRO’s small satellites.

Under this option, payload only is developed by the Universities or Institutions and launched with ISROs satellite missions which has other ISRO’s payloads. Data Handing and data transmission is done by ISRO as the part of satellite bus.

After launch ISRO will acquire payload data and disseminate it to Universities/ institutions further processing and analysis.

Satellite Design & Fabrication by Universities/Institutions
Under this option Universities have to design, fabricate, test the satellite Bus & Payload and deliver the integrated spacecraft for launch. Technical guidance in designing, fabrication and testing will be provided by ISRO. Some critical materials for the space mission also will be provided by ISRO.

The designs and test results will be reviewed by ISRO team.

Under this option more than one University/Institution may participate. One among them will be the focal point for the ISRO. After launch, the collected data will be archived and disseminated by university/Institution(s).

List of University / Academic Institute Satellites
SN Launch Date Launch Mass Launch Vehicle Remarks
9 NIUSAT Jun 23, 2017 15 kg PSLV-C38 / Cartosat-2 Series Satellite
8 PRATHAM Sep 26, 2016 10 kg PSLV-C35 / SCATSAT-1
7 PISAT Sep 26, 2016 5.25 kg PSLV-C35 / SCATSAT-1
6 SATHYABAMASAT Jun 22, 2016 1.5 kg PSLV-C34 / CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite
5 SWAYAM Jun 22, 2016 1kg PSLV-C34 / CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite
4 SRMSat Oct 12, 2011 10.9 kg PSLV-C18/Megha-Tropiques
3 Jugnu Oct 12, 2011 3 kg PSLV-C18/Megha-Tropiques
2 STUDSAT Jul 12, 2010 Less than 1 kg PSLV-C15/CARTOSAT-2B
1 ANUSAT Apr 20, 2009 40 kg PSLV-C12 / RISAT-2

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