Foreign policy and the role of decision makers

The foreign policy-making intended to convert the general goal of the state to the specific decision, as the state's foreign policy is made by individuals and groups representing the state and they know the maker of decisions. So the manufacture of foreign policy decisions can be examined in the light of the interaction between decision makers or decision makers and internal environment.

and Among the basic objectives for each country to:
1- The preservation of the independence of the state and its sovereignty and national security: this will be through:
- an attempt to establish good relations with its neighbors
. Access to military and economic aid and engage in formal treaties and military blocs and political and economic.
2. increase the strength of the State : and this goal is linked to the first objective, but is the tool and the means to preserve the sovereignty of the state and its security. The strength of the State is a complex combination of political factors and minds and human, geographical and technological and psychological. And the power of the State is to define its foreign policy as the foreign policy linked to and based on the strength of the State.
3 - Development of a State's economic level: And that is an important objective of the state, but that the presence of the State is based on the existence of an economic base is the minimum of the national wealth.

But on the other hand, there are influential factors in the foreign policy making of Akrid also select to 3 stages are:
1- The first stage (inputs) and include information and observations and the transfer of information and training of the personnel of foreign policy.
2. The second stage (Resolutions) and include the use of information and the planning process and the process of analysis, which focus on the objectives and alternative strategies and discussion and bargaining power, and the advice and recommendations.
3. The third phase (output): and the options include the political and the implementation and the follow-up and information and negotiation and learning from the experience of the application.

Among the participating bodies in the industry of foreign policy:
1-The president of the government:
the first step to begin the decision-making is "draft resolution", where the government represented by its project to the legislature (Congress). In the beginning the idea of the project either on the initiative of the President of the government or a minister or his advisers, whether as a result of self-initiatives or as a result of the request made by a foreign government.
Usually, the head of state played a prominent role in political decision making in the state of the presidential system such as America where the president of the presidency of the Government of the Republic.

Usually, the head of state played a prominent role in political decision making in the state of the presidential system such as America where the president of the presidency of the Government of the Republic.
In States with a parliamentary system such as Britain and India, which have a head of state, as well as to the President of the Government of the role of the head of state (whether he was a king or the President of the Republic of) the only formal role is to receive the ambassadors and the representation of the State in national and international events. The foreign decision-making lets the head of government with his ministers
when we talk about the role of the president in making foreign policy does not mean that he is himself in the preparation of the draft resolution and elaborate ideas. Indeed, it is often resorted to the Enlightenment and rationalization of a huge advisory body of advisers with experience and knowledge in international affairs.
2-Minister of Foreign Affairs:
the confidence between the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and whatever the least attention of the chief of the government in foreign issues, foreign minister "does not put the policies without the consent of the head of the government".
Foreign Minister derives its importance from the presidency of the most relevant to international affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the main sources of information and basic tools for the implementation of foreign policy.
It is where the information is detailed and continuous embassies to send reports on the situations of the different countries. After the arrival of these reports are analyzed by the experts distributed on the main sections of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It provides a summary of these reports after its analysis to the Minister of Foreign Affairs with advice on what should be the foreign policy.

3- intelligence
and has a role in the foreign policy making, similar to the role of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the confidentiality of its activities in the absence of legal and legitimate practices.
Also differ from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that it is used by all States as an instrument of foreign policy, but the use of limited countries usually the rich and powerful countries and active in the international community such as the United States and the Soviet Union.
Intelligence as a tool of foreign policy EMERGED significantly after the Second World War and played a prominent role in international politics in the international community and foreign policies of many States. Generally, such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to collect and analyze information as well as serve as a tool for the implementation of the government's foreign policy.
But what distinguishes it from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is that they are collecting confidential information related to the national security and the implementation of government policies which are not in conformity with the usual diplomatic rules. The most prominent of the intelligence services in the world, the US Central Intelligence Agency, which was known as "the sea. Any. (7)C.I.A Central IntelligenceAgency

4. The national security council:
this council is in some States sometimes takes the status of a special committee in the government, which is the advisory role is to provide advice to the head of state with regard to the coordination of policies related to national security and foreign affairs, military, and some internal policies related to national security.
In short, we can say that the National Security Council and the role of the architect and coordinator of the foreign policy of the State, particularly the security policy. It sets out the general framework of the outer resolution, thus contributing to the foreign policy-making

5-The Legislative Power:

the name of the legislative authority of the state to the other. In America knows the congress, which includes the senate and the house. In Britain, known as the parliament, which includes the House of Commons and House of Lords. In the Kuwait learn the Council of the nation, which consists of one house only.

6. Political parties:
political party is considered one of the most prominent political institutions that contribute to the making of foreign policy. Depending upon the role of the party in making foreign policy on multi-party discipline.
If in the state of more than one party as is the case in the democratic countries, the consensus on foreign policy shared by existing Parties and shall be the strongest party is most influential in guiding foreign policy.
If there is no one political party, the ruling party, as in the case of socialist States and some developing countries, its impact in the foreign policy become very strong, but that the political parties in the one-party States is playing a prominent role in making foreign policy in accordance with the doctrine of the political party.
7. The political interest groups:
and pressure groups because it is used as a means of pressure to compel politicians to make decisions in their favor. It has emerged as an important factor and influential interest groups in both the internal and external policy of the State.

8-The Media fluid
due importance of the media as a tool of foreign policy-making contribution to the impact on both decision makers and public opinion. The views of the citizens, whether formal or informal form as a result of the observation and interpretation of events.
And the media is the first noticeable international events and essential source of interpretation. For the official decision makers, the media and the press, radio, TV and a prominent role in directing them and providing them an important part of the information on which to make decisions.
In addition to the fact that the media is an important source of information, internal and external, it can be used as an indicator of public opinion and the positions of the citizens to the state's foreign policy.

9. The public opinion:
intended public opinion the view of ordinary citizens, which the Government considers that it would be wise to respected and taken into account.
The public opinion as a driving force in foreign policy has no role before the First World War. However, with the end of the war, and with the growth of political awareness of peoples began the public opinion represented the opinion of the labor forces in the course of the shows and affects the internal and foreign policy of the states.
Public opinion expresses itself through the channels of the Organization, such as political parties, interest groups, and media, as is the case in the democratic countries or impose itself in the form of mood, demonstrations and political, as is the case in most of the countries of the third world.

Most also plays an important role in decision-making such as influential officials in foreign policy on the discussion of the political and legal issues and international and those responsible for the personal views around it.

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Comment by Al LeBlanc on February 13, 2018 at 1:04pm

Thanks for sharing your views on complex political process  of foreign policy decision making.   Seems to me the common thread is the multiple and conflicting political forces of a democracy, your "participating bodies."  An informed voting  Individual Voter (based on facts versus "fake news"  can "make all the difference." 

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